• TP-Link WR703N OpenWrt post installation tips

    TP-Link WR703N OpenWrt post installation tips

    In this post I’ll write down a few thigs I think are worth doing right after flashing your WR703N. The flashing itself is not covered in this post. For that, check out my How to flash TP-Link WR703N with OpenWrt post.

     Setting up a static IP address

    The first thing you should do is to assign a static IP address of your choice to your WR703N. There are three main reasons for doing this:

    1. Since your home router probably already uses, you will avoid having problems caused by conflicting IP addresses
    2. You will always know what the IP of your WR703N is and you will be able to connect to it from inside your network very fast
    3. Lastly, you will be able to make it work with DynDNS and port forwarding to connect to it from anywhere on the Internet

    Connect your WR703N directly to your PC using ethernet cable, telnet to it (telnet and then edit /etc/config/network (Vi editor comes installed with OpenWrt, so you can use that). For example, to set the IP to (assuming your network uses 192.168.1.X range and your home router is at, your lan interface section should look like this (do not change/remove the loopback interface part):

    config interface 'lan'
       option ifname 'eth0'
       option type 'bridge'
       option proto 'static'
       option ipaddr ''
       option netmask ''
       option gateway ''
       option dns ''

    Now run this command:

    /etc/init.d/network restart

    And after that, feel free to disconnect the WR703N from your computer and connect it to your router/switch (you will be able to access it on the IP address that you just set up).

    Enabling SSH / disabling telnet (setting up password)

    Setting up the account password (using “passwd” command) will automatically disable telnet and enable Dropbear SSH daemon on port 22. Dropbear is an OpenSSH replacement designed for environments with low memory and processor resources (such as WR703N) and on OpenWrt it is installed by default instead of OpenSSH. You can easily replace Dropbear with OpenSSH if you want, but don’t do it before setting up extroot (see the next subsection) or else you will run out of free space.

    Extroot – extending your memory with an external USB device

    Extroot will allow you to use an external USB device to extend your internal memory which will enable you to install more packages onto your device (WR703N only has 4MB of flash memory which really isn’t much). Since this is a bit more tricky and it depends on which version of OpenWrt you have installed as well as on what kind of USB stick you have, I believe it is bettter for you to go to extroot wiki page and follow the steps provided there than for me to just copy all that stuff here.

    Installing GNU Screen and Vim

    GNU Screen will allow you to have multiple screens (you can view them as tabs or virtual terminals) so you won’t have to log in multiple times to have several terminals at once which is really, really handy. Vim is simply Vi improved. If you prefer another terminal editor (nano, joe..), go ahead and install that one.

    opkg update
    opkg install vim screen

    If you’re not familiar with screen, here are some basics.

    Installing the web interface

    You might want to install the OpenWrt web interface – LuCI (you need to have extroot set up for this or you will run out of free space):

    opkg update
    opkg install luci

    You will have to enable and start uhttpd daemon afterwards:

    /etc/init.d/uhttpd enable
    /etc/init.d/uhttpd start

    Then you will be able to access the web interface by typing your WR703N’s IP into your browser’s URL bar.

    Switching to Bash / setting up .bashrc

    OpenWrt comes with Ash shell. If you would like to use Bash instead, here is how you can switch and add some nice colouring to it. Install Bash by issuing the following:

    opkg update
    opkg install bash

    Then edit /etc/passwd and change the root user line to this:


    After that, run this command (which will create /root/.bash_profile and put “. $HOME/.bashrc” in it):

    echo ". $HOME/.bashrc" > /root/.bash_profile

    Then you can either use your own .bashrc or download the one that I use (I got it from Arch wiki a few years ago) and put it in your root directory like this (if you would like to use your own .bashrc, make sure to put it in /root as well):

    wget -P /root/ http://cmikavac.net/download/.bashrc

    Now log out, and log in again and you should have a brand new prompt.

     SSH public key authentication

    To enable SSH public key authentication on Dropbear you will first have to copy your public key to your WR703N’s tmp directory by issuing the following command from your Linux machine (change YOUR_KEY with your actual public key file name, and WR703N_IP with the IP address of your device):

    scp ~/.ssh/YOUR_KEY.pub [email protected]_IP:/tmp

    Then log in to your WR703N and copy your public key to authorized_keys file:

    cat /tmp/YOUR_KEY.pub >> /etc/dropbear/authorized_keys
    chmod 0600 authorized_keys

    I couldn’t make make OpenSSH work with SSH public key authentication because apparently there is a bug in OpenWrt’s OpenSSH package (I read that somewhere on OpenWrt forums while I was trying to make it work some time ago, but I can’t find that post now… if I find it, I’ll put the link here).

    If you don’t use SSH public key authentication already, go here and read why you should and how to use it.

    For MS Windows users.

     Using DynDNS / setting up port forwarding on your router

    If your router supports DynDNS, or a similar service, you can make your WR703N accessible from anywhere on the internet (this is useful because you will be able to use your WR703N to tunnel your traffic to protect yourself while you are connected to an unsecured network somewhere). The explanation will be a bit more generic, but it will give you a rough idea on what you have to do to make it work:

    1. Register an account on DynDNS webpage
    2. Enter your DynDNS credentials into your router (find them somewhere in your router’s options)
    3. Forward a high TCP port (something above port 1024) to your WR703N (for example – if your WR703N is on, and Dropbear is running on port 22, then forward 8822 TCP to port 22)

    Now you should be able to SSH into your WR703N by issuing the following command inside your terminal:

    ssh -p 8822 [email protected]

    This might help you set up port forwarding on your router.


    If you for any reason ever want/need to reflash your WR703N with a fresh instance of OpenWrt do the following (wget will download the latest snapshot of OpenWrt for WR703N, and mtd command will flash it to your device):

    cd /tmp
    wget http://downloads.openwrt.org/snapshots/trunk/ar71xx/openwrt-ar71xx-generic-tl-wr703n-v1-squashfs-factory.bin
    mtd -r write openwrt-ar71xx-generic-tl-wr703n-v1-squashfs-factory.bin firmware



    OPKG Wiki 
    OpenWrt WR703N Wiki


    Hope this helps. If you find out that something I wrote is wrong and is not working, please drop a comment bellow and I’ll fix it. Thanks. =)

  • How to flash TP-Link WR703N with OpenWrt?

    How to flash TP-Link WR703N with OpenWrt?

    1. Go to OpenWrt WR703N wiki page and download the latest squashfs-factory.bin firmware (keep in mind that although this is what most people use – this is not the latest stable version, but the bleeding edge OpenWrt firmware snapshot from the trunk which work just fine in most cases (if you want the latest stable version get the latest stable version))
      edit: I have only been using the trunk version myself, and I’ve been told that there is no stable version for WR703N (yet) since it got supported some time after the latest stable release (Backfire 10.03.1)
    2. Connect the WR703N directly to your PC using ethernet cable (WR703N will use by default so if you try to connect it to your router/switch instead, it will probably start causing problems since most home routers have the default IP of and you will have two devices on your network with conflicting IP addresses)
    3. Set a static IP address on your PC (it must be in 192.168.1.X range, different from WR703n’s and with subnet mask)
    4. Go to and log in using admin/admin credentials
    5. Now go to (according to Gene Wood’s comment, after the 1.6 update you will not be able go to this link directly any more but instead you will have to navigate through the menu manually, he wrote down the correct menu navigation sequence on his wiki page so feel free to check it out).
    6. Click on the grey button on the right side of the empty box and upload the firmware *.bin file that you download earlier
    7. Flashing might take up to a few minutes so be patient and DO NOT turn the power off (that will probably brick your device). When it’s all done, the device will reboot automatically, the blue LED will be lit solid (no blinking) and you will be able to telnet to the device
    8. For further configuration, feel free to check my TP-Link WR703N OpenWrt post installation tips post =)
  • Da ne zaboravim _\\//

    Da ne zaboravim _\\//

    [2009-03-04 19:08] installed filesystem (2009.01-1)
    [2009-03-04 20:35] synchronizing package lists
    [11.09.2012] R.I.P. (3y6m7d / 1287 days)

    [2009-03-07 20:18] installed filesystem (2009.01-1)
    [2009-03-07 21:15] synchronizing package lists

    Long live Arch.

  • How to fix Ctrl-Tab behavior in Kate?

    Kate has tabs turned off by default (at least that’s what you get with vanilla Kate package from Arch Linux repositories) and even when you turn them on, they act kinda funky because Kate switches between tabs by name order, rather than by opening order so what happens is that Ctrl-Tab starts jumping between your tabs instead of going from one to another, from left to right. That was quite confusing to me, and I wanted to change that behavior to what I’m already used to in browsers, GEdit, Pidgin, whatever… Finding a solution (a very well camouflaged one for that matter, thank you) to this situation was rather… unexpected.

    To turn tabs on (if they’re not turned on by default in your distro) you will first have to go to Settings -> Configure Kate -> Plugins and turn on either “Tab Bar” or “Multiline Tab Bar”. Try both and then decide which one suits you better. After that you will have to set up the shortcut for switching between tabs. To do that, go to Settings -> Configure Shortcuts and set the shortcut for Forward to Ctrl-Tab. You could as well set up alternate shortcuts: Alt+1 for Back and Alt+2 for Forward. You will be able to toggle tabs in both directions then easily.

    To fix the tab switching behavior (ordering), open the Documents column from the File System Browser (if you have it turned off, turn it on under plugins), right-click on it and choose Opening Order from Sort By in the drop-down menu.

    That’s it, enjoy!

  • Automating Risu report dumping

    Here is a small bash script to automate Risu reporting. It’s not the most elegant thing out there, but it gets the job done. You will have to make Risu config file beforehand and put it in the same folder with this script and all the Nessus scans you’ve got. The script will pipe all the scans into Risu, create pdf reports for you and dump them into the same folder.

    # perhaps you will have to set custom Risu path

    $risu --create-tables

    for file in $(ls *.nessus);
       nessus_logs=("${nessus_logs[@]}" $file)

    $risu ${nessus_logs[@]}
    echo -e "\n"

    echo "Dumping findings_summary.pdf"
    $risu -t findings_summary -o "findings_summary.pdf"

    echo "Dumping findings_summary_with_pluginid.pdf"
    $risu -t findings_summary_with_pluginid -o "findings_summary_with_pluginid.pdf"

    echo "Dumping exec_summary.pdf"
    $risu -t exec_summary -o "exec_summary.pdf"

    echo "Dumping cover_sheet.pdf"
    $risu -t cover_sheet -o "cover_sheet.pdf"

    echo "Dumping pci_compliance.pdf"
    $risu -t pci_compliance -o "pci_compliance.pdf"

    echo "Dumping ms_update_summary.pdf"
    $risu -t ms_update_summary -o "ms_update_summary.pdf"

    echo "Dumping graphs.pdf"
    $risu -t graphs -o "graphs.pdf"

    echo "Dumping technical_findings.pdf"
    $risu -t technical_findings -o "technical_findings.pdf"

    echo "Dumping finding_statistics.pdf"
    $risu -t finding_statistics -o "finding_statistics.pdf"

    echo "Dumping assets.pdf"
    $risu -t assets -o "assets.pdf"

    echo "Dumping exec_summary_detailed.pdf"
    $risu -t exec_summary_detailed -o "exec_summary_detailed.pdf"

    echo "Dumping host_summary.pdf"
    $risu -t host_summary -o "host_summary.pdf"

    echo "Dumping findings_host.pdf"
    $risu -t findings_host -o "findings_host.pdf"

    echo "Dumping ms_patch_summary.pdf"
    $risu -t ms_patch_summary -o "ms_patch_summary.pdf"

    echo "Dumping template.pdf"
    $risu -t template -o "template.pdf"

    echo -e "\n"
    $risu --drop-tables
  • SVN over SSH in kdesvn

    This one might just spare you about 2-3 hours of your time doing SVN+SSH kdesvn googling. One would think it would work out-of-the-box, but it doesn’t. To get kdesvn to work with SSH, there is one small undocumented trick – using an environment variable (as if you were using command line SVN+SSH). To do that, put the following line into your .bashrc:

    export SVN_SSH="ssh -l <your_remote_ssh_username>"

    If you try using SVN+SSH without it, kdesvn will try to login to remote server using your current username (the one you are using on your local machine). Of course, each time unsuccessfully because it’s not the right username. After that, go to Subversion->General->Checkout a repository, and enter:


    …in the URL field. Also, choose the target directory and check any other desired options. After that, just bookmark the connection and you’re all set up.

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